The Death of Philosophy

In ancient times, when knowledge is not yet split in specialized disciplines, the philosophy of non-resident served as a range of sciences, including psychology. In ancient philosophy relevant to the death is determined by several factors, including the nature, character death. For example, Plato in the dialogue "Timey" said that "the natural and painless death is accompanied by pleasure rather than suffering." The body dies, it is clear. This is not doubted, even the creator of the teachings of the ideas. And what happens to the soul?

The followers of Plato sought truth about the death or the immortality of the soul between the two arguments: either knowledge (consciousness) - is anamnesis life experiences, or the soul - harmony, spokon the current century. The followers of Aristotle held belief in the divine beginning of the world, life forms evolve and die by their own laws. Kiniki spat on those and other, because the idea (the idea) was to them means, and purpose - to life itself (or rather, way of life). For the same reason, the image of death was interesting kinikam death. Kiniki generated stoic with their ostentatious contempt for death, and to some extent influenced the emergence of such institutions of Christianity, as craziness, otshelnichestvo and strannichestvo. Great-grandmother of Christian hermitages were barrel Diogenes. If life's relationships have been formed so that it was impossible to sort them (ie, fair and feasible to perform duty), stoic preferred suicide to end, rather than adding extra chaos to the world. For example, came from Zenon Kitiona and Kleanf.

"Playboy" Epikur struggled with fear of death such speculations: "accustom themselves to the idea that death does not have any relation to us... All the good and evil is the feeling, but death is deprivation of sensation. Therefore, the correct knowledge that the death does not have any relation to us, making life delectable mortality - not because of that it adds to its enormous amount of time, but because it takes away thirst for immortality is stupid... the one who said that he fears death not because it cause suffering, when it comes, but because it causes suffering that will come: because if that is not alarmed by the presence, then vainly mourn, when it is just expected. Thus, the worst of evils, death, does not apply to us any relations, as when we exist, death is not yet present, and when death is present, then we do not exist. Thus, death is not related neither to live nor dead, because for some it does not exist, while others have not exist ".

However, regardless of faith and philosophical beliefs, Rome and Greece built a death on the marble pedestal. The good death of the hero or the death of Bill deposed emperor, who throws herself on a sword or beat their breasts daggers. Caesar stabbed by the conspirators do not care about saving, and that at the time of death, to adopt a dignified pose. Nero, on the contrary, in the hour of mortal danger of a coward (his office was forced to remind himself the owner of the honor of Emperor) and became the object of ridicule for his contemporaries.

Christian philosophy, taken over from antiquity brilliantly worked out the formal apparatus of logic, it spread to the rest. The early church fathers (St. Ignatius Bogonosets, ST. Justin the philosopher, Tatiana, municipal, Felix, and others) to death contrasted life, not in favor of a second. The message of St.. Ignatius Bogonostsa by title speak for themselves: "Do not remove me from the Martyrdom", "I want to die," "Through death, I achieved the real life, I want to die, for the love of my crucified, etc. Wishing death, however, a Christian should not have to treat it down. Blessed Augustine attacked stoic for their disregard for the fear of death, for having for its moral "straightened" never saw the compressive their handfuls of God. Christianity did not deny the need to get rid of the fear of death, but this fear was not dissolved in the air, as lyuterovskay characteristics after throwing ink, and transformed into a solemn dread of God before the court.

Yet even such a strong faith, like Christianity, could not destroy before the end of primitive man in the animal fear of physical death. That is why in all the centuries theologians and "free thinkers" of Christianity sharpen a psychological problem of death, how to overcome fear and despair. Kierkegaard in the "disease to death," writes that "a Christian - the only one who knows that such a deadly disease. It derives from the Christian courage, which so lacks a single man - bravery, received together with the fear of extreme terrible. So , bravery, we have always granted, and fear Vered great risk gives us the resolve to confront the danger of a lesser; endless as the fear of danger only makes all other non-existent. A terrible lesson of the Christian - is that it learns to recognize the "deadly disease".

In the European Middle Ages to the fear of death prodigally admix the world fear the dead, who was present in people's minds just as real as the world of the living. Personification "of light, its active" intervention "of life on earth, until the real events in the eyes of living dead, on the one hand, reinforce the fear, horror to the world beyond the grave, but on the other - to give to this world-known features, the psychology of the two sblizhaya hypostasis of being.

Medievalist A.Ya. Gurevich notes: "Death on medieval representations of people, not a conclusion, a complete end of human existence. I mean not that obvious to the Christian truth, that after the termination of life of the body remains immortal soul. It is important to another: the relationship between not be interrupted by the death of people who died have the ability to communicate with the living. The dead remain interested in the world of the living, visiting it in order to settle their cases or improve their position in the sky. The world is dead to the world affects the living. For their part, and the world of the living can have a strong influence on the fate of the dead. Finally, in a world in certain cases, are the people who died, only for a short time and then come back to life. Temporarily deceased, living or dead ozhivshie, afterlife existence of which has nothing to do with eternal sleep and dormancy, maintain and exchange of services between this and the light - as seen between the two worlds occurs tense communion ".

F. Tawba in the "Index Exemplorum" leads some 240 examples of the emergence in the world of the living dead. Moreover, the emergence in the physical form. About cronyism two worlds great shows medieval history presented in the book A.Ya. Gurevich. Odin tosspot found in the cemetery of the skull and spyanu invited Dead to their guests. Skull replied: "Go ahead, I followed." In fright poor locked himself in his house, but the guest dead, actually, the skeleton, made it to unlock and vymyv hands (what a part!), Sat down at the table along with everyone. He did not eat nor drink, and said nothing, but leaving the house, invited the owner to the eighth day, come to where they first met. All pets were horrified and did not know what to do. Drunkard to repent of sins and took communion, but was forced to come to visit. Suddenly naletevshy wind moved it into a wonderful empty castle, where he met for the convivial table of the deceased. Dead reassured him: nothing he would not be caused, but let it continue to be so lightly does not behave with the dead. About corpse told that he was in the city judge did not care about God and he loved to drink. However, he rightly judged, and the LORD repented him. Then the wind took the live guest house, and his relatives and friends were surprised by the change: the hands and feet of his nails grew like eagle's claws, and tested them printed on the face of fear, which is black and look terrible.

Later, in the XVII century, rationalism drove Europeans verify algebra harmony - to overcome the fear of death, fear of nonexistence afterlife with the help of mathematics. Naked Faith, even podpertaya Aristotelevoy logic crutches, limping, leaving a feeling of dissatisfaction. The more rapidly the natural sciences, the greater was their success in the practice areas, the stronger would use them to escape from the fear of death. The symbol of this philosophy can serve as Spinoza, proves the existence of God and acts of kindness with the help of mathematical arguments.

Still later, in the Enlightenment, human consciousness was portrayed as an empty vessel into which the experience of faith content of life, including thinking about death. The psychological nuances, of course, depended on the ideological orientation. Deist, unlike Christians, denied the original sin (evil) human nature, which should fail and - death. On the contrary, they believed, a man by nature good and only habitat, poor public relations push him into the arms of a famous Latin proverb "one person dog." This means that death is not retribution, it is possible not to fear neither death, nor the pangs of hell, because God - this is not a personalized understanding of the substance in the Old Testament, but rather a watchmaker, who once built a watch-universe, set off the spring of our world, and ending work... forgot about it. As unceremoniously denied the Holy Trinity and the pantheist, for whom God was dissolved in each piece of the world. Add more philosophical idealism of the XVIII century - and we have mixed picture of the new philosophy of life and death. Philosophy, where, on the one hand, the man recalled that he was only "esophageal tube," as well as its smaller brethren, lishi "infinitely more oblagorozhennoy" (Herder) - but on the other hand, building "the moral law in me "in the absolute (Kant).

XIX century. Then you and Darwin, and Karl Marx and Nietzsche. Lord, let someone just do not! And if you add another hangover from the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars, ponevole head whirl. And if you remember that last Witch: burned in Spain in 1826, and Mexico - already in the 1860-meters, it becomes clear amplitude-century fiction. Some, like the Orthodox holy elder Sarov, pre-produce a coffin own hands, were to death as usual and even joyful dedication. Others (the French actress Sarah Bernhardt), sleeping in a coffin - not the desire epatirovat audience, but just not giving it special significance. Yves while philosophers emotional type (neoempiriki, more precisely, psihoempiriki) did not speak - vopili of death.

Among them cried very loud belonged to Arthur. He believed that a peace based on spontaneous, unaware where accepting "the will to life" is not worthy of himself, since fragmented into many "small vol, each of which purport to samoobozhestvlenie. So there is not more honest to admit the absurd "war of all against all, that our world - not the best, and worst of the possible? Hence - Odin step up to the idea of self-destruction.

"... I want to Artur or did not want - a modern commentator noted - but actual, real, and - importantly - effective results, culminating in his philosophical system, was the specific wording of the problem of death. They have been formulated the problem of" truth "of death," authenticity " non-existence, the concept of nothingness forever living Will - the problem is traditional in Western culture the question of the true life, which was discredited because life itself was declared limit the embodiment of all neistinnosti ".

Odin of the heirs, Friedrich Nietzsche, thoughts about death, squeezed in his books, like the spring (it is brought so far). Replace the will to live the will to power, he tried in such a way to overcome the fear of cotton wall, noise isolation and fury of life. Death for him - not amorphous substance and a catalyst for action, a great sparring partner in the stadium the world, encouraging people to strain all the vital forces. "The thought of death - a state record of Nietzsche in the work" Cheery Science. "- It is a melancholic happiness to live in this maze of narrow streets, needs the votes, how much pleasure, impatience, insatiability how thirsty life and the life of intoxication is found here in every moment And, yet, soon will come a peace for all those shumyaschih living, thirst for life! look like behind each of his shadow, his dark companion...

... And yet, everyone thinks that everything has happened so far, it does a little, and that the near future is everything: hence, the rush, the Creek, it samooglushenie and samonaduvatelstvo! Each wants to be first in the future - and still only death and deathly silence is common to all and only valid in it! How strange that the only commonality and reliability is not much power over the people and that they are most distant from the fact that you feel in the death of the brothers! I would be happy to add something to this, to make them even thought about living in stokrat worthier thoughts.

Another empirical philosopher warehouse Lev Shestov, Nietzsche fine for disparaging comment about the death of Socrates, life lovingly cajole the "natural and unnatural death." The death of the great Greek Shestov taken as an example of "frontal" collision with the death. Trying to restore the internal state of Plato, after the forced suicide of Socrates, Shestov writes: "... when we have seen a teacher dies, views on the naturalness of death, and even on the naturalness who could hardly come to mind. So you think only" unnatural about the supernatural. And how can we be confident that the natural authority and powerful supernatural? It is - at first glance - comprehensible, conceivable, closer. But what good, and in the face of it, and in the conceivable, and comprehensible! Socrates is in fact poisoned, and it is not! Of course, "natural" no worries, it is easy to be carried forward and accept and open the soul to the supernatural is immensely difficult. And only in the face of the great horrors of the soul is decided to make over them the force, without which it will never rise above reality: disgrace and painful death makes us forget everything, even our "self-evident truths," and go for a new reality in the areas that have punished to the human shadows, and ghosts ".

Pet Shestova - Plato, and almost on every page of his composition, he recalled words of the ancient thinker that philosophy is preparation for death. In the end, this game on a string and it starts to annoy rephrase: death is the preparation for philosophy. However, this is indeed the case. Energy Death (chaos), nourishes the life of (the order). Not Heidegger believed the death of a much more important phenomenon than life, because it is death, and makes life - life personifies it. Our existence, for Heidegger, - it is "being-to-death" (comparable to Kierkegaard: "the disease to death). The idea of deep and shallow at the same time. However, much more observation we are interested in bridging. But overcoming the death of Heidegger, we are not promising. For if there is to overcome, there is no "self" of life, but only "improper", an anonymous existence - the fact that a Christian would call a "bogorastvorennostyu", and Buddhist - care nirvana. These things also can not hold samoosoznayuschuyu personality, with its manic anthropocentrism.

Generally speaking, philosophers of XX century suffered incredible "yachestvom. They boyish Gambling destroyed castles in the sand, erected by their predecessors, and built their - castles in the air. Air - in the sense that the terminology of Heidegger, Jaspers, Sartre, Camus, Marcuse, Adorno and others built on semantic structures, working on itself, is not secured vnelichnostnoy semantics. This production closed-cycle, is used to generate new ideas of their own waste (recall that I mean not the concept, and terminology). As if there was no great Go"del's incompleteness theorem! (Its in good conscience can also be used in discovering the world of philosophy.)

True, some philosophers (eg, Sartre) calls not to humility before his death, or dauntless great comprehension of its meaning, but to the "armed" resistance. This difference is due to fundamental difference approaches to learning. It is appropriate here to draw an analogy with the actor's craft. Vakhtangov once taught actors play "image" and "attitude to the way". So philosophers are divided into those who examines the "image of life" (Plato, Hegel, Heidegger), and those who investigates "otnoshepie to the way of life" (, Avenarius, Mach, Nietzsche, Sartre, Marcuse).

The fact that Heidegger was speculative analysis, ontological drawings of strange devices, identified as Homo sapiens, for Sartre was a fellow with the pain, clots, nerves, prills despair.

Overcoming (understand) the death possibly by emotional (psychotherapy), social fire by speculative theorizing - the choice is thinker.

Philosophical Schools and course of the XX century the notion of the death of a nation linked to the notion of time. However, such a saying - the truth, otherwise, morally - and writers. "Memento mori" - great word - thought Leo Tolstoy. - If we remember that we die, our whole life would have entirely different purpose. The man, knowing that he would die in half an hour, it will not do anything either empty or a fool, nor, more importantly, bad in this half hour. But half a century, which may be separated you from death, is not the same as half an hour? Before his death, and before this time, no ".

Of course, for a specific person being - it is rather a psychological than physical category. In this sense, the main property of the time paradox - it is (time) has an infinite number of finite segments, and this makes the subject of perceived time, in fact, immortal. Again, remember the golden phrase Epikura: "The most terrible of evils, death, does not have any relation to us, as long as we exist, death does not yet exist, when it comes, we will no longer exist." Something similar occurs and Marcus Aurelius: "The life expectancy is no different from the brief. Because now all the same, and hence, are equal and losses - and they are just for a moment. No one can lose either the past or coming . For who would rob me something I do not have? "

In fact, the man is mortal is not for ourselves, but for foreign observers. This simple message and confirms the principle of relativism, which is typical for a modern scientific and philosophical thinking. However, here we are already entering the sovereign territory of science, studying Psyche (soul).

AP Lavrinov

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